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Porting how-to

This document describes the requirements and necessary steps required to port MCUboot to a new target OS.


Steps to port

Main app and calling the bootloader

From the perspective of the target OS, the bootloader can be seen as a library, so an entry point must be provided. This is likely a typical app for the target OS, and it must call the following function to run the bootloader:

int boot_go(struct boot_rsp *rsp);

This function is located at boot/bootutil/loader.c and receives a struct boot_rsp pointer. The struct boot_rsp is defined as:

struct boot_rsp {
    /** A pointer to the header of the image to be executed. */
    const struct image_header *br_hdr;

     * The flash offset of the image to execute.  Indicates the position of
     * the image header.
    uint8_t br_flash_id;
    uint32_t br_image_addr;

After running the management functions of the bootloader, boot_go returns an initialized boot_rsp which has pointers to the location of the image where the target firmware is located which can be used to jump to.

Configuration file

You must provide a file, mcuboot_config/mcuboot_config.h. This is included by several files in the “library” portion of MCUboot; it provides preprocessor definitions that configure the library’s build.

See the file samples/mcuboot_config/mcuboot_config.template.h for a starting point and more information. This is a good place to convert settings in your environment’s configuration system to those required by MCUboot. For example, Mynewt uses MYNEWT_VAL() and Zephyr uses Kconfig; these configuration systems are converted to MCUBOOT_ options in the following files:

Flash Map

The bootloader requires to be able to address flash regions where the code for MCUboot and images of applications are stored, in system-agnostic way. For that purpose the MCUboot uses ID, which is integer (uint8_t) number that should uniquely identify each flash region. Such flash regions are served by object of const struct flash_area type while layout of these objects is gathered under flash_map. The common code of MCUboot, that is non-system specific, does not directly access contents of that object and never modifies it, instead it calls flash_area_ API to perform any actions on that object. This way systems are free to implement internal logic of flash map or define struct flash_area as they wish; the only restriction is that ID should be uniquely tied to region characterized by device, offset and size.

Changes to common MCUboot code should not affect system specific internals of flash map, on the other side system specific code, within MCUboot, is is not restricted from directly accessing struct flash_area elements.

An implementation of struct flash_area may take form of:

struct flash_area {
    uint8_t  fa_id;         /** The slot/scratch identification */
    uint8_t  fa_device_id;  /** The device id (usually there's only one) */
    uint16_t pad16;
    uint32_t fa_off;        /** The flash offset from the beginning */
    uint32_t fa_size;       /** The size of this sector */

The above example of structure hold all information that is currently required by MCUboot, although the MCUboot will not be trying to access them directly, instead a system is required to provide following mandatory getter functions:

/*< Obtains ID of the flash area characterized by `fa` */
int     flash_area_get_id(const struct flash_area *fa);
/*< Obtains ID of a device the flash area `fa` described region resides on */
int     flash_area_get_device_id(const struct flash_area *fa)
/*< Obtains offset, from the beginning of a device, the flash area described
 * region starts at */
uint32_t flash_area_get_off(const struct flash_area *fa)
/*< Obtains size, from the offset, of the flash area `fa` characterized region */
uint32_t flash_area_get_size(const struct flash_area *fa)

The MCUboot common code uses following defines that should be defined by system specific header files and are used to identify destination of flash area by ID:

/* Independent from multiple image boot */
#define FLASH_AREA_BOOTLOADER         0
/* Flash area IDs of the first image in case of multiple images */
/* Flash area IDs of the second image in case of multiple images */

The numbers, given above, are provided as an example and depend on system implementation.

The main, also required, set of API functions that perform operations on flash characterized by struct flash_area objects is as follows:

/*< Opens the area for use. id is one of the `fa_id`s */
int      flash_area_open(uint8_t id, const struct flash_area **);
void     flash_area_close(const struct flash_area *);
/*< Reads `len` bytes of flash memory at `off` to the buffer at `dst` */
int      flash_area_read(const struct flash_area *, uint32_t off, void *dst,
                         uint32_t len);
/*< Writes `len` bytes of flash memory at `off` from the buffer at `src` */
int      flash_area_write(const struct flash_area *, uint32_t off,
                          const void *src, uint32_t len);
/*< Erases `len` bytes of flash memory at `off` */
int      flash_area_erase(const struct flash_area *, uint32_t off, uint32_t len);
/*< Returns this `flash_area`s alignment */
uint32_t flash_area_align(const struct flash_area *);
/*< What is value is read from erased flash bytes. */
uint8_t  flash_area_erased_val(const struct flash_area *);
/*< Given flash area ID, return info about sectors within the area. */
int      flash_area_get_sectors(int fa_id, uint32_t *count,
                                struct flash_sector *sectors);
/*< Returns the `fa_id` for slot, where slot is 0 (primary) or 1 (secondary).
    `image_index` (0 or 1) is the index of the image. Image index is
    relevant only when multi-image support support is enabled */
int      flash_area_id_from_multi_image_slot(int image_index, int slot);
/*< Returns the slot (0 for primary or 1 for secondary), for the supplied
    `image_index` and `area_id`. `area_id` is unique and is represented by
    `fa_id` in the `flash_area` struct. */
int      flash_area_id_to_multi_image_slot(int image_index, int area_id);


As of writing, it is possible that MCUboot will open a flash area multiple times simultaneously (through nested calls to flash_area_open). As a result, MCUboot may call flash_area_close on a flash area that is still opened by another part of MCUboot. As a workaround when porting, it may be necessary to implement a counter of the number of times a given flash area has been opened by MCUboot. The flash_area_close implementation should only fully deinitialize the underlying flash area when the open counter is decremented to 0. See this GitHub PR for a more detailed discussion.

Memory management for Mbed TLS

Mbed TLS employs dynamic allocation of memory, making use of the pair calloc/free. If Mbed TLS is to be used for crypto, your target RTOS needs to provide this pair of function.

To configure the what functions are called when allocating/deallocating memory Mbed TLS uses the following call:

int mbedtls_platform_set_calloc_free (void *(*calloc_func)(size_t, size_t),
                                      void (*free_func)(void *));

For reference see Mbed TLS platform.h. If your system already provides functions with compatible signatures, those can be used directly here, otherwise create new functions that glue to your calloc/free implementations.